Sunday, August 30, 2020

Ancient Education System in India


  • A gurukula or gurukulam  was a type of education system in ancient India with shishya ('students' or 'disciples') living near or with the guru, in the same house.The guru-shishya tradition is a sacred one in Hinduism and appears in other religious groups in India, such as Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. The word gurukula is a combination of the Sanskrit words guru ('teacher' or 'master') and kula ('family' or 'home').Before the arrival of British rule, they served as South Asia's primary educational system. The term is also used today to refer to residential monasteries or schools operated by modern gurus.The proper plural of the term is gurukulam, though gurukulas and gurukuls are also used in English and some other Western languages.



  • The students learn from the guru and help the guru in his everyday life, including carrying out of mundane daily household chores. However, some scholars suggest that the activities are not mundane and very essential part of the education to inculcate self-discipline among students. Typically, a guru does not receive or accept any fees from the shishya studying with him as the relationship between a guru and the shishya is considered very sacred.

  • At the end of one's education, a shishya offers the guru dakshina before leaving the gurukula. The gurudakshina is a traditional gesture of acknowledgment, respect and thanks to the guru, which may be monetary, but may also be a special task the teacher wants the student to accomplish. While living in a gurukula, the students would be away from their home from a period of months to years at a stretch and disconnected from their family completely.


History


The gurukula system of education has been in existence since ancient times. The Upanishads mention multiple gurukulam, including that of guru Drona at Gurgaon.The Bhrigu Valli (a discourse on the Brahman) is said to have taken place in Guru Varuni's gurukula. The vedic school of thought prescribes the gurukula (sacred rite of passage) to all individuals before the age of 8 at least by 12. From initiation until the age of 25 all individuals are prescribed to be students and to remain unmarried, a celibate.

Gurukulam were supported by public donations. This was followed by the many following Vedic thoughts making gurukula one of the earliest forms of public school centres.
Revival of the gurukula system.

By the colonial era, the gurukula system was on a steep decline in India. Dayananda Saraswati, the founder of Arya Samaj and Swami Shraddhanand, were the pioneers of the modern gurukula system, who in 1886 founded now-widespread Dayanand Anglo-Vedic Public Schools and Universities.

In 1948, Shastriji Maharaj Shree Dharamjivan das Swami followed suit and initiated first Swaminarayan gurukula in Rajkot in Gujarat state of India. Recently, several gurukulam have opened up in India as well as overseas with a desire to uphold tradition.
Today various gurukulas still exist in India, and researchers have been studying the effectiveness of the system through those institutions.

Gurukula out of India

The Gurukula system of education is available outside of India as well. They are known as Gurukula.

Gurukula in Belgium

At the Jain Culture Center of Antwerp, children between the ages of 8 till 16 study Vedic mathematics, Art, Music, as well as Vedic Astrology, Jyotishi, Sanskrit and Yoga.
Children participate in this Gurukula during holiday times at the traditional schools, for a week in October / November, 2 weeks during Easter break, and 1 month during summer break.

Thursday, August 20, 2020

Importance of Education in Life


  • ·         Humans can become animals without education. If you have heard about the cavemen, how they use to live their lives without any knowledge. It is education or you can say in easy terms knowledge that makes modern men from cave men.


  • ·         To say Education is important is an understatement. Education is a weapon to improve one’s life. It is probably the most important tool to change one’s life. Education for a child begins at home. It is a lifelong process that ends with death. Education certainly determines the quality of an individual’s life. Education improves one’s knowledge, skills and develops the personality and attitude. Most noteworthy, Education affects the chances of employment for people. A highly educated individual is probably very likely to get a good job. In this essay on importance of education, we will tell you about the value of education in life and society.



·         “KNOWLEDGE IS THE FOOD FOR MAN BECAUSE IN ABSENCE OF KNOWLEDGE MAN CANNOT GROW HIS FOOD.”

  • ·       The first thing that strikes in our minds when we think about education is gaining knowledge. Education is a tool which provides people with knowledge, skill, technique, information, enables them to know their rights and duties toward their family, society as well as the nation. It expands vision and outlook to see the world. It develops the capabilities to fight against injustice, violence, corruption and many other bad elements in the society.



  • ·        Education gives us knowledge of the world around us. It develops in us a perspective of looking at life. It is the most important element in the evolution of the nation. Without education, one will not explore new ideas. It means one will not able to develop the world because without ideas there is no creativity and without creativity, there is no development of the nation.


  • Importance of Education in Our Society
  • ·         Education is an important aspect that plays a huge role in the modern, industrialized world. People need a good education to be able to survive in this competitive world. Modern society is based on people who have high living standards and knowledge which allows them to implement better solutions to their problems.


  • Features of Education
  • Education empowers everyone. Some of the areas where education helps are:

1.  Removing Poverty
Education helps in removing poverty as if a person is educated, he can get a good job and fulfill all the basic needs & requirement of his family.


2.  Safety and Security against Crime
If a person is well-educated, he will not be fooled by anyone easily. An educated person is less prone to involve in domestic violence & other social evils. They enjoy healthy relationships in life. This means people are less susceptible to being cheated or becoming a victim of violence.

3. Prevention of Wars and Terrorism
To lead a safe & secure life, one needs to understand the value of education in our daily life. One needs to take an active part in various educational activities. These types of productive activities provide knowledge to live a better life.

4. Commerce and Trade
A good education doesn’t simply mean going to school or college & getting a degree. Trade & commerce of the country will also be flourished easily if its citizens are well-educated. Education helps to become self-dependent and build great confidence among them to accomplish difficult tasks. On getting an education, their standard of life gets improved.

5.  Law and Order
Education enables the process of the Nation’s Fast Development. If you have a good education, you can serve your country well. It develops a good political ideology.

6. Women Empowerment
Education also helps in empowering women. Certain old customs like Not Remarrying Widows, Sati Pratha, Child Marriage, Dowry System etc. can be demolished with the power of education. Women, if educated, can raise voice against the injustice done to her. This will bring a lot of development in society as well as in the nation. In short, Right to Freedom of speech & expression can be used in the right way if all women will become educated.




7. Upliftment of economically weaker sections of society
Education is the most important ingredient to change the world. Due to lack of education, many illiterate people suffer the hardships of discrimination, untouchability & injustices prevailing in the society but with the advancement of a good education. If all the people will be educated; this ultimately leads to the upliftment of economically weaker sections of society.

8. Communications
The relation between education & communication is apparent. Good education helps to communicate better with other people. It also improves our communication skills such as speech, body language etc. A person who is educated feels confident within him to confront or give a speech in front of a large public or can held a meeting or seminar.

Writing emails, letters, typing messages, reading magazines & newspapers or even using a Smartphone can never be possible without getting a basic education.

Role of Education in Society
Education is the social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms values.

One of the most important benefits of education is that it improves personal lives and helps the society to run smoothly. By providing education, poverty can be removed and every person can provide their contribution to developing the country.

Education Helps in Creation of a better society.
An educated person is more likely to develop better moral and ethical values as compared to an uneducated person. Lack of education creates problems like superstition, domestic violence, poor health, and poor living standards. Education brings equal opportunity for both men and women and educated people will be able to create a better society. Without a good education, a better society can’t be formed.


Education act as Back Bone of a Society.
Education is an integral part of human society. Its importance in life can’t be ignored as lack of education gives birth to numerous social problems like poor health, internal conflict, poor living standards and many more. It helps people to find a better solution to their problems. Education lets people realize the true value of contribution and help become the backbone of the society.

Education encourages Innovation and Creativity.
Education means innovation. Innovation and creativity can only occur when people are skilled enough to know how to operate with different technologies. Educated people always find a solution to their problems with the help of better techniques.

Education Can Create Better Human Beings.
Education is the most powerful weapon which we can use to change the perspective of the world. An educated person knows how to deal with different types of problems. Through the right education, a person can develop good moral values. It helps us to become a good human being.

Education Gives Ability to Read & Write.
“A man without education is like a building without foundation.”

Education helps a person to be able to read and write. Most of the information is communicated by writing. A man who has this ability to read is called a literate.

He can read books, newspapers, signs, and symbols. It also helps to read signboards in the street, at shops, bus, train and air stations. It also helps them in their day to day activities like banking, shopping, money transaction and many more.

Without primary education, one has to depend on others for all the above basic needs.

Understanding the Responsibilities

As a social being, it is our responsibility to give something back to the society and make it a better place for the next generation. An uneducated man can’t be fully aware of his responsibilities. An educated person is aware of his personal as well as social responsibilities. Proper education teaches a person to think beyond his personal interests and also provides him the ability to give something back to the society.

Make This World A Better Place To Live In

Without educated people, this world can’t become a better place. That is why proper education is needed to turn this world into a better place. Hence, we can conclude that for the evolution of a country, there is a need for education.




Sunday, August 16, 2020

MOVIES THAT SHOWS THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION

21 Inspirational movies on education that should be must watched by every child.


1. Good Will Hunting (1997)




IMDb rating – 8.3/10


Cast & Crew: Good Will Hunting boasts an illustrious cast including Robin Williams, Ben Affleck, Matt Damon and Stellan Skarsgard. This American film was written by Affleck and Matt Damon while it was helmed by Gus Van Sant.


Story: Matt Damon played the title role of a 20-year old young man. The hero is gifted with high potential in mathematics and chemistry but doesn’t realize what his potential can offer.


The film will inspire students to discover hidden talents they have.


2. Lean on Me (1989)


IMDb rating –7.4/10


Cast & Crew: Written by Michael Schiffer and stars Morgan Freeman, directed by John G. Avildsen.


Story: Do you need a second chance at study or your career?




Based on a true story, Lean on Me is a dramatized biographical film An unorthodox teacher returns to the idyllic high school from which he had been fired as the principal, only to find it devoid of the success it used to be. This movie will help build you up and get you through that pile of study! There is nothing like a true story to really lift your spirits.



3. The Paper Chase (1973)



IMDb rating –7.2/10


Cast & Crew: Directed by James Bridges, The Paper Chase is an inspirational Hollywood movie starring Timothy Bottoms, Lindsay Wagner, and John Houseman.


Story: Sometimes study does not come easily – often we need to learn to “set the mode”.


The Paper Chase focuses on the hardworking and studious James T. Hart who faces many challenges during his first year at Harvard. The movie is perfect for anyone struggling and finding it difficult to keep the motivation alive.



4. 21 (2008)


IMDb rating –6.8/10


Cast & Crew: 21 is a 2008 American movie directed by Robert Luketic starring Jim Sturgess and Kevin Spacey.


Story: The film is inspired by the true story of the MIT Blackjack Team as told in Bringing Down the House, the best-selling book by Ben Mezrich.


There is a typical situation: a talented student entered Harvard University, but he has to demonstrate his unique experience no other students have in order to get a scholarship.


Taking into account the fact that last year this scholarship was won by a student from Korea who had no leg, this task appears to be not easy at all. But the student is lucky to meet a math teacher who has noticed his talent to count and offered an unusual deal to him…If you don’t know what to write in your motivation letter for all professors to notice you, this movie is a real must-watch for you then.




5. Forrest Gump (1994)



IMDb rating – 8.8/10


Cast & Crew: Directed by Robert Zemeckis, starring Tom Hanks


Story: This Tom Hanks movie tells the inspiring story of a man with low IQ who achieves many incredible feats. He wins the Medal of Honor for bravery, becomes an expert Ping Pong player, inspires the famous dance of Elvis Presley, and makes money by selling shrimps.


It is a truly inspirational story that every student should watch. The movie conveys that nothing is impossible if you are willing enough. There is a famous in the movie – “ Mama always said life was like a box of chocolates. You never know what you are gonna get”




6. Theory of Everything (2014)




IMDb rating –7.7/10


Cast & Crew: James Marsh directed this movie starring Eddie Redmayne and Felicity Jones


Story: This Movie depicts the story of Stephen Hawking, the greatest cosmologist and physicist of our time. As a brilliant student of Astrophysics, he shockingly learns that he is suffering from motor neurons disease. Doctors predict just 2 more years for him to live.


But, he remarkably defied medical calculations and went on to live up to 76 years of age. During this period he became the famous man he is today with his eminent contributions to the world of Cosmology and Physics.

This movie is inspirational for all students, especially ones with special needs. There simply isn’t a boundary for what you can achieve with what you have.



7. 42 (2013)



IMDb rating –7.5/10


Cast & Crew: This Brian Helgeland helmed movie featured Chadwick Aaron Boseman in the lead role also starring Harrison Ford.


Story: This inspirational sports drama portrays the real life story of America’s baseball icon Jackie Robinson. He was the first Black player to feature in the Major League in the Modern Era.


The movie can teach students a lot about racism that was in practice in the USA. It can help students understand how difficult it can be to overcome challenges and why they should persevere.




8. The Social Network (2010)




IMDb rating –7.7/10


Cast & Crew: “The Social Network” is an American drama movie written by Aaron Sorkin and directed by David Fincher in 2010. Jesse Eisenberg depicted facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg while Justin Timberlake and Andrew Garfield played supporting roles


Story: This Inspirational Hollywood movie shows the journey of Mark Zuckerberg from a Harvard student to a multi-millionaire is really an inspiring one for everyone; it might inspire you to become an awesome genius like the man himself. The Social Network, tells that every student can turn their dream into reality.



9. The Breakfast Club (1985)



IMDb rating –7.7/10


Cast & Crew: It’s an American comedy drama directed, written and produced by John Hugges in 1985.


Story: This movie is about how 5 students from different backgrounds end up together for a detention and open up to each other.The Breakfast Club shows that students can find friendship in the most unexpected ways. Regarded as an evergreen teen cult movie, it is a must watch for every student.



10. Freedom Writers(2007)



IMDb rating –7.6/10


Cast & Crew: This movie was directed by Richard LaGravenese and featured Hilary Swank and Patrick Dempsey


Story: “Freedom Writers” is an inspirational movie based on a young teacher who inspires her troublesome class to pursue studies even after high school. She has to contend with at-risk students who are divided among themselves, opposing teachers, struggling marriage and money shortage.


Students who watch this movie are bound to see their teachers in a new light.



11. Life of Pi (2012)


IMDb Rating: 7.9/10


Cast and Crew: Released in the year 2012, this movie directed by Ang Lee features both Indian and foreign actors. The film stars Suraj Sharma as Pi, Irfan Khan, Tabu, Rafe Spall, and Gerard Depardieu. The film won many awards at premiere film festivals around the world. It won the Golden Globe awards for the Best Director and Best Picture – Drama.


The Story: The plot of the movie revolves around the life of Pi Patel, a 16-year-old born a Hindu but follows all three religions for the love of God. The film talks of the boy’s life story as rendered to a novelist about how he survived a shipwreck and marooned in the Pacific Ocean with a Bengal tiger for companionship on a lifeboat.


The film will teach students how to realize hidden strengths when pushed to a corner.




12. Stand and Deliver(1988)



IMDb rating –7.9/10


Cast & Crew: Directed by Ramón Menéndez, starring Edward James Olmos, Lou Diamond Phillips, Will Gotay and Vanessa Marquez


Story: This movie is based on the real story of a high school mathematics teacher named Jaime Escalante.


It shows how an idealistic maths teacher supports his “no-hoper” students to study by adopting unusual teaching methods. “Stand and Deliver” is really an inspirational movie for those who think they are hopeless in their studies.




13. Rush (2013)



IMDb Rating: 8.1/10


Cast and Crew: Written by Peter Morgan and directed by Ron Howard, the movie stars Chris Helmsworth and Daniel Bruhl. Produced on a budget of 38 million USD, the film is a racy one which won the BAFTA Award for Best Editing.


The Story:  The plot of the movie is centred around two F1 racers of the 1970s – James Hunt and NikiLauda who are intense rivals and how they stretch to their very limits to prove their supremacy on the tracks. The movie is for the driving buff with exhilarating race sequences on the screen.


Students can get a feel of the gruelling conditions during an F1 race and how the rivalry spurred the other to fine-tune their skills.



14. Boyhood (2014)



IMDb Rating: 7.9/10


Cast and Crew: Written and directed by Richard Linklater, who is famous for his ‘Before’ trilogy, the movie stars Patricia Arquette, Ellar Coltrane, Ethan Hawke, and Lorelei Linklater. The film was lauded for its extraordinary undertaking of being shot for over 12 years. The stars showed up and the film every year when their schedules allowed them to do so.


The Story: The unique point of this movie was that it was shot over a course of 12 years and renders the story of a boy’s life over 12 years’ time. Incidents that occur in MJ’s life when living with his mother after his parents’ divorce form the main part of the film. The film traces in all emotional depth the life of the boy during his teens. The film shows the poignant moments of fatherhood and motherhood as well.


The film provides a great chance for children to understand the happenings in their parents’ lives in the context of modern times.




15. The Blind Side(2009)



IMDb rating –7.7/10


Cast & Crew: The Blind Side is an American biographical sports drama film written & directed by John Lee Hancock in 2009. Sandra Bullock starred in the leading role.


Story: It is based on the real story of Michael Oher, who was adopted by a loving, supportive family – the Tuohys. Leigh Anne Tuohy and her husband Sean offer him shelter for a day and extend their welcome indefinitely.Leigh Anne discovers Michael’s strengths and helps him understand his strengths better. This, in turn, has a positive effect on his football skills. Finally, he becomes a successful football player, with strong support from the Tuohy family despite going through some rough patches.




16. The Pursuit of Happiness (2006)




IMDb rating –7.7/10


Cast & Crew: Helmed by Gabriele Muccino, this biopic featured Will Smith and his son Jaden Smith as Chris Gardner and his son respectively.


Story: The Pursuit of Happyness is an American biographical drama film based on the life of entrepreneur Chris Gardner directed by Gabriele Muccino in 2006.


In this movie, Will Smith plays the role of Gardner who goes from being a homeless salesman to the owner of a brokerage house with his sheer determination and will power.




17.Warrior (2011)




IMDb Rating: 8.2/10


Cast and Crew: Directed by Gavin O’Connor, the movie stars Joel Edgerton, Nick Nolte, and Tom Hardy. Nick Nolte was nominated for the Academy Award for the Best Actor in a Supporting Role.


The Story: The film tells the story of two MMA champions who meet for a fight without knowing the fact that they are estranged brothers. The two brothers fight tournaments for different reasons and end up fighting one another. The brothers reconcile their differences in the end and the movie closes with the smiling shot of the father.


The film presents some great shots on MMA fighting with the major theme being reconciliation and redemption of the human spirit. The power of forgiveness and family bonds are well explored in the movie.




18. Half Nelson (2006)




IMDb rating –7.2/10


Cast & Crew: Half Nelson, is an American drama film directed by Ryan Fleck in 2006 and written by Anna Boden & Fleck. Ryan Gosling, Shareeka Epps and Anthony Mackie played the lead roles.


Story: This movie focuses on an inner city middle-school teacher who becomes friends with one of his students after she finds out that he has a drug habit. As compared to other movies based on good teachers, Half Nelson tells the story of ordinary people facing genuine problems but still maintains hope.




19. The Internship(2013)




IMDb rating –7.2/10


Cast & Crew: It’s an American comedy movie, directed by Shawn Levy in 2013, written by Vince Vaughn & Jared Stern and it was produced by Vaughn and Levy.


Story: The Internship is about Billy and Nick, two middle-aged salesmen, played by Owen Wilson and Vince Vaughn, who lost their jobs due to the arrival of digital age and how they manage to get a chance to do internship with Google and prove their worth.




20. Everest (2015)



IMDb Rating: 7.1/10


Cast and Crew: This biographical adventure film was both produced and directed by Baltasar Kormakur. The film was scripted by Simon Beaufoy and William Nicholson. The movie stars Jason Clarke, John Hawkes, Emily Watson, and Keira Knightley among others.


The Story: The story set in Everest and recounts the disaster that took place in the year 1996 in the mountain. Two expedition groups fight to survive as they are faced with difficulties during the climbing as well as the descent. The film portrays intense peril and the thrill of being able to view climbing up Everest.


The film shows, how in reality, things can go wrong, not in the way that one hopes and what is usually shown in happy-ending movies.





21. The Great Debaters (2007)





IMDb rating –7.6/10 


Cast & Crew: Starring Denzel Washington, “The Great Debaters” is an inspirational American movie movie released in 2007. It was directed by Denzel Washington himself and its producer was Oprah Winfrey.


Story: It is based on an article written about the Wiley College debate team.


Thinking of teaching or training others? This movie is the dramatic retelling of the true story of Melvin B. Tolson, a professor who inspired his students to challenge Harvard at the debating championship.

Wednesday, August 12, 2020

Forensic Science in India

How can I get admission in forensics after 12th?

First, candidates have to complete their 10+2 examination from science branch for admission into UG degree. After completing a bachelor degree i.e. B.Sc, you can apply for the master degree that is M.Sc in Forensic Science. Some private universities conduct its own entrance test for admission in master courses.

Is Neet required for forensic science?

No, writing NEET is not required to get admission in forensic sciences. Colleges and Universities conduct their own entrance exam for admission in a forensic science course

Is there any entrance exam for forensic science?

Check out the top BSc Forensic Science Colleges in India. ... Admission Process: Admission in this course is offered generally on the basis of entrances, but few colleges also have the facility of merit-based admission. Top Entrance Exams: JET, Amity JEE, LPUNEST, and other University or State level Entrance Exams.

Which college is best for forensic science?

Some forensic Science Universities in India

Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Narayan National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science, Delhi.
OU - Osmania University, Hyderabad.
Dr. Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar.
BU - Bundelkhand University, Jhansi.
Gujarat Forensic Sciences University, Gandhinagar.

What is the salary of forensic scientist in India?

Various job roles in Forensic science area in Central government, State government and Local government can earn an average salary of $107,810 – $57,240 per year. In the private sector, Starting salary in Forensic science field starts from RS. 3 lakhs – 4 lakhs per annum.

What is the highest paying forensic job?

Forensic Medical Examiner. Perhaps the highest paying position in the field of forensic science is forensic medical examiner. ...
Forensic Engineer. ...
Forensic Accountant. ...
Crime Scene Investigator. ...
Crime Laboratory Analyst.


Does forensic science have scope in India?

Forensic Scientists from India can work as medical examiner, crime laboratory analyst, crime scene examiner, forensic engineer, and language expert and evidence enhancer by portraying psychological profiles of habitual offenders as well as doing the analysis of crime scenes, etc.

Can I do forensic science without biology?

Whichever it is, you need to check out the eligibility by visiting their official website or visiting their office. In the above, you find that there is no specific mention of Biology and only 12th Science is mentioned. ... You may continue with BSc Physics or Chemistry and then try for Forensic Science in MSc level.




Sunday, August 9, 2020

New Education Policy

About New Education Policy Consultation



The National Education Policy was framed in 1986 and modified in 1992. More than three decades have passed since previous Policy. During this period significant changes have taken place in our country, society economy, and the world at large. It is in this context that the education sector needs to gear itself towards the demands of the 21st Century and the needs of the people and the country. Quality, innovation and research will be the pillars on which India will become a knowledge super power. Clearly, a new Education Policy is needed.


The Government had initiated the process of formulating a New Education Policy through the consultation process for an inclusive, participatory and holistic approach, which takes into consideration expert opinions, field experiences, empirical research, stakeholder feedback, as well as lessons learned from best practices.


The Committee for preparation of the draft National Education Policy submitted its report to the Ministry on 31.05.2019. The Draft National Education Policy 2019 (DNEP 2019) was uploaded on MHRD’s website and also at MyGov Innovate portal eliciting views/suggestions/comments of stakeholders, including public. The draft NEP is based on the foundational pillars access, affordability, equity, quality and accountability.


Post submission of Draft Report States/UTs Governments and Government of India Ministries were invited to give their views and comments on Draft National Education Policy 2019. A brief summary of the Draft National Education Policy 2019 was circulated among various stakeholders, which was also translated in 22 languages and uploaded on the Ministry’s website. Meetings with State Education Secretaries of School Education and with State Secretaries of Higher & Technical Education were held.An Education Dialogue with Hon’ble MPs of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Kerala, Karnataka & Odisha.


A special meeting of CABE on National Education Policy was held. In the meeting, 26 Education Ministers of various States and UTs, representatives of States and Union Territories, Members of CABE, Heads of Autonomous Organisations, Vice Chancellors of Universities, attended the meeting along with senior officials of the Central and State Governments. Around 2 lakh suggestions on the Draft National Education Policy received from various stakeholders. A meeting on Draft NEP 2019 of Parliamentary Standing Committee on Human Resource Development was held on 07.11.2019.


Currently exercise of formulation of National Education Policy is ongoing and it will be finalised shortly.

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Education

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, however learners may also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy.

Formal education is commonly divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and then college, university, or apprenticeship.

A right to education has been recognized by some governments and the United Nations.In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age.Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society. In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge, values, and skills from one generation to the next. As cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be readily learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom.


Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi (right) in the Chinese edition of Euclid's Elements published in 1607
Plato founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in Europe. The city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476.

In China, Confucius (551–479 BCE), of the State of Lu, was the country's most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Confucius gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.

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